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The World’s Population is Now 8 billion

by Jonah Smith, age 13

If you looked up on Google how many people were on Earth, the answer would be 7.8 billion people. But according to a recent United Nations report, in late 2022 our population finally hit 8 billion. The population is still rising, but the rate of growth has slowed. The rate the U.N. based their last predictions on was the rate of growth from 2017. At that time, the U.N. predicted that the world’s population could reach 11.2 billion people by the year 2100. With this new data, the population is now expected to peak during the 2080s at 10.4 billion people. Once it peaks, the numbers will plateau until 2100.

This new information also highlights the challenges linked with population growth, said Maria-Francesca Spatolisano of the U.N. during a news conference on July 11th, 2022. These challenges include meeting people's social and economic needs (food, water, shelter, etc.), as well as how people use Earth’s resources and alter the environment.

The population will grow differently across various areas. For example, high-income countries, which have low birth rates, will grow due to more people moving there, a U.N. report predicts. In low-income countries, populations will rise as there are more births than deaths. This report also states that in 61 countries, populations are expected to drop by one percent or more between now and 2050. The net effect is that overall, populations are still expected to rise. [Read More]

Scientists Study Sleep-Deprived Mosquitoes to Prevent the Spread of Deadly Diseases

by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 13

Humans and mosquitoes are more alike than you may want to believe; new research suggests mosquitoes prefer sleep over food when sleep-deprived.

As we all know, mosquitoes can be deadly, carrying diseases like Zika, Dengue, and Malaria. These diseases can cause death upon adults and even young children. Since most mosquitoes are active at night, people place nets over their beds for protection. Researchers are interested in mosquito sleep cycles, as awareness of sleep cycles can help predict diseases.

The presence of food can rouse a relaxing mosquito. It can be difficult sometimes to tell when they are asleep because they look similar to when they are simply relaxed. To better understand it, scientists track their behavior. Mosquitoes that have a long rests are more likely to land on people than mosquitoes that barely get any sleep. Oluwasuen Ajayi was part of a research team on mosquitos from the University of Ohio-Cincinnati. [Read More]

100 Foot Jump Breaks World Record

by Moore Vang, age 13

What can jump as high as the eyes of the Statue of Liberty? Well, the jumping robot can! The robot was designed by Elliot Hawkes, a mechanical engineer from University of California, Santa Barbara. With the ability to jump three times higher than any other jumping robot, it can also out-jump any living animal.

Hawkes has been working on the robot for seven years. “It started out as a stick with weights and rubber bands,” he said. Nobody would’ve called it a robot at the start of its creation because it didn’t have anything electronic or any motors on it, he recalls. This got him and his colleagues determined to find out, “Just how high can it go?” After many years of work, the robot reached heights as high as 100 feet. Hawkes and his team recorded this on the website Nature on April 23, 2022.

Various researchers studied how different types of animals jump. Hawkes didn’t want to copy any of the animals so instead, his team learned the types of features of certain animal jumpers and how to find ways around it. Muscles in the body of many animals including humans provide energy for jumping. These muscles pull on stretchy hamstrings that react just like a spring, launching the body high into the air. A muscle can only tense up and release once per jump. Weight is also a factor due to large muscles making the animal or human heavier. Typically, the heavier the animal, the harder it is to move against the force of gravity. [Read More]

The International Space Station Is Retiring, What Does this Mean for Space Exploration?

by Theodore Morrison, age 14

The International Space Station is considered a constant symbol of humanity's achievements in the fields of space science and diplomacy. Many will be shocked to learn that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has plans to retire and crash the station straight into the ocean in 2031.

According to The International Space Station Report, NASA is aiming to crash the ISS into the Pacific Ocean at a location called Point Nemo, the farthest point at sea from any landmass. To put the distance in perspective, it is 2,000 miles North of Antarctica and 3,000 miles East of New Zealand. The ISS will, probably, rest forever at a point known as the spacecraft graveyard.

This retirement isn’t without merit, though, as NASA confirms that they intend to use the ISS as an “analog for a Mars transit mission,” according to a NASA report. The ISS was a point for which science could advance, which has included 3D printing an item on the orbiting station, producing the fifth state of matter, growing organic food in space, and sequencing DNA. [Read More]

There’s a Chance the Black Hole at the Center of Our Galaxy Is Actually a Wormhole

by Allison Torres, age 14

Writers that love science fiction like the idea of wormholes. Go in a wormhole, and it might transfer you to another place in time.

Physicists have taken the time to study and talk about what it might actually look like inside a black hole. There could be a wormhole in the middle of our galaxy. One way scientists are able to confirm that wormholes exist would be to go through a black hole and see if there is a hidden bridge. Although, this would be a rare occurrence, since the Milky Way is more of a door than a dead end. They could also probably figure out if there is any presence of existing life on the other side.

Researchers have found that orbits of stars, such as S2, have been orbiting a giant black hole for years. Scientists say that if this star or other stars feel existence on the other side of a black hole then the star would perform a peculiar dance. [Read More]

Webb Space Telescope Sends New Images to Scientists on Planet Earth

by Ashley Mercado, age 13

NASA has finally revealed the first set of beautiful images taken from a new space telescope, the James Webb Space Telescope. The first picture from the Space Telescope was a plethora of distant galaxies that go deeper than scientists have ever seen. NASA says the new Webb Telescope will eventually replace the Hubble Telescope. Some of Webb’s images show areas of the universe Hubble has already studied, and some show areas Hubble could not reach.

Webb used infrared light which allowed scientists to obtain a clearer images and show places they have not yet studied. NASA administrator Bill Nelson said, “Every image is a new discovery and each will give humanity a view of the universe that we’ve never seen before.” In the new images, astronomers are looking for two nebulae: the Southern Ring Nebula and the Carina Nebula. They are also looking for five galaxies, known as Stephan’s Quintet, as well as the recently discovered gas planet called WASP-96b. 0[Read More]

Unmasking the Age of Fingerprints: Unlocking Forensic Mysteries with Chemical Analysis

by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 14

When you are done doing something involving your hands, they tend to get sweaty. Sweat is actually an oily chemical that is constantly being produced by your hands. This chemical helps forensic teams to identify peoples’ fingerprints during crime scene investigations. Scientists are using the chemical in these fingerprints left at crime scenes to reveal the age of the prints, but there is still an issue: scientists can't tell how old the prints are.

The oily chemical that fingerprints produce reacts with oxygen in the air. Examining the changes and degradation of the chemical after oxygen exposure helps scientists calculate the age of a fingerprint.

When researchers analyze prints, they use something called mass spectrometry. This technique is used to identify atoms and molecules in fingerprints by their mass. The chemical from each print changes differently, from one day to the next. Some even show changes within seven days. [Read More]

Navigating the Dangers of the Sea

by Daileni Torres-Cruz, age 10

Being at sea can be a wonderful experience, however, it can also take an unexpected turn for the worse. There are many dangerous occurrences in the sea. High winds during storms or volcanoes make big waves in the middle of the ocean that can cause ships to swerve off their courses. Ships may also collide with large icebergs, similar to what occurred on the Titanic in 1912. The Titanic was the newest and most luxurious boat at the time. The iceberg ripped a hole in its exterior, which caused it to sink to the bottom of the ocean. It was known as one of the worst accidents at sea.

Waterspouts are formed when tornadoes land in the sea. They suck up a lot of seawater into a big dark cloud. Boats floating on the sea can be sucked into waterspouts.

Packed ice in the Arctic Ocean and circling Antarctica can trap or sometimes even crush ships. Nowadays, it is easy for icebreakers to break through the packed ice as they are specially made to force their way through. [Read More]

Revolutionizing Data Transmission: Researchers Achieve Unprecedented Speeds Using Microcombs

by Daniel Li, age 15

A team of Danish researchers and physicists recently discovered a way to transfer almost 1.84 petabits of data per second - which is equivalent to nearly 100 million Netflix movies playing simultaneously - using only one small chip. In recent years, achieving this would have required more power and more chips, even though the previous record for the highest data transmission rate using one chip was only set in 2020.

The team used a relatively discovery as the basis for their development. In 2005, the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to a team of researchers who discovered a way to convert laser light into a special type of rainbow, called an optical frequency comb. To accomplish this, a laser is shined through a special chamber, which produces a rainbow with all of its colors spread out evenly. However, this process involved massive machines, larger than a standard refrigerator. Two years later, another team built on this discovery, and was able to achieve a similar effect, but with much smaller chips, dubbed “microcombs.”

Microcombs can be used in various fields to detect diseases, provide information about unknown planets, build more accurate clocks, and even efficiently transmit data. Compared to conventional fiber optic cables, microcombs are far better at transmitting large amounts of data at once. [Read More]

The African Bongo: Big Horns? Low Branches? No Problem!

by Oliver Zink, age 12

The bongo is Africa's most colorful antelope. They can weigh up to 892 pounds and have spiral shaped horns which can grow up to 39 inches long. The bongos’ big ears help with hearing the slightest noise from predators.

Bongos have patterns in their coats which makes it easier to spot each other in shaded areas. This patterns is also broken up across the bongo’s coat, making it especially helpful for camouflage.

Bongos reach sexual maturity when they are 30 months old. They mate throughout the year, however, they can only have one calf at a time. Bongos live in rainforests and they lean their head back while running to prevent getting their horns stuck in the foliage. Their diet consists of plants, buds, leaves and roots. They roam all over the rainforest to find the best food. [Read More]

Himalayan Glaciers Face up to 80% Ice Loss by 2100 Amid Rising Temperatures

By Valeria Moreno Lopez, age 16

Scientists believe that nearly a quarter of the world's population could face severe natural disasters by 2100 due to the alarming rate at which the Himalayan glaciers are melting. The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), based in Nepal, has warned that the glaciers could lose up to 80% of their volume if worldwide temperatures increase by 3 degrees Celsius or more.

ICIMOD, which aims to preserve life and biodiversity in mountain and downstream populations, has reported that one-third of the glaciers from Afghanistan to Myanmar could disappear even in the best-case scenario. However, over the years, the calculations have changed. If worldwide temperatures rise between 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius, less than half of the volume will be lost by 2100. Moreover, these temperatures could also exacerbate global droughts, wildfires, extreme floods, and food shortages. Professor Saleemul Huq, director of the International Centre for Climate Change and Development, has stated, "In all three pillars of climate action - mitigation, adaptation, and loss and damage - we are at a standstill or going the wrong way, while the consequences of inaction are accelerating by the day."

Further research suggests that nearly 2 million square miles surrounding the highest mountain chain already show dramatic impacts. Due to the isolated location of Himalayan communities, immediate disaster response is challenging. Glacial water benefits crops and medicinal plants in nearby farmlands, but rapid melting will overwhelm them. The risk of constant floods, landslides, and avalanches soars, followed by a series of drought phases as the water dries up. Stretching from tropical rainforests to cold deserts in Asia, numerous rare species are in danger due to the region's shifting conditions. In particular, about 14 butterfly species are extinct in the Murree Hills of Pakistan, and other animals face breeding and developmental issues. [Read More]

Four Consecutive “Supermoons” Visible in Wisconsin this Fall

by Dayanis Torres Cruz, age 13

In the coming months, there will be a lunar eclipse, a blue moon, and multiple supermoons. Supermoons are brighter and are seven percent bigger than the average size of a full moon because the moon is closest to Earth during these times.

There will be a blue supermoon on August 30th, which is very rare. It will be the second full moon of the month. The term "blue supermoon" was coined in 1883 after the Krakatoa Volcano eruption, as debris in the sky gave the moon a blue appearance.

The full harvest supermoon will occur on September 29th, following the fall equinox. During this time, farmers can work at night due to the moonlight illuminating all the crops. [Read More]

Craving Control: The Science Behind Junk Food Addiction

by Elim Eyobed, age 12

If you've ever had a craving for junk food, you're certainly not alone. Whether it's chips, pizza, donuts, or cake, these processed foods are so flavorful that they can become extremely addictive. As a result, it can be very difficult to stop eating.

While addiction is typically associated with drugs or alcohol, some researchers have discovered that junk food can elicit similar addictive responses. The stimulating effect of junk food triggers a recurring cycle within the brain's reward circuit. Junk food induces the release of dopamine, which in turn brings about a sense of happiness in a similar fashion to drugs and alcohol.

The primary concern here isn't necessarily the presence of carbohydrates or fats, as healthier foods such as nuts and meat contain fats, and oats are rich in carbs. Rather, the issue lies in the fact that many unhealthy foods lack the essential nutrients that unprocessed foods used to contain. Consequently, the combination of sugars and fats in these foods creates a cycle that makes it challenging to resist eating them. [Read More]

The Vampire Spiders Are the Secret Blood-Lovers of the Insect World

by Riya Adhikari, age 12

Everyone talks about blood-loving mosquitos, but does anyone talk about the blood-loving spiders? Evarcha culicivora, also called vampire spiders, are a type of spider that feeds on blood. They are called mosquito terminators.

Evarcha likes both animal and human blood. Vampire spiders cannot bite through skin or animal hide because their mouthparts are not built for this ability.

Vampire spiders depend on mosquitoes to get the blood they desire. Their favorite types of mosquitoes are Anopheles, which are the main malaria spreaders in Africa. This mosquito species sits with its bottom sticking up in the air, while the majority of mosquitos sit with their bottoms on the floor. Their posture is an advantage for baby spiders. They can crawl under the mosquito’s abdomen, jump up, then grab onto the mosquito. While it flies away, the little spiders hang on to the mosquito and inject it with their venom. They then have a big feast. Vampire spiders live by Lake Victoria in the nations of Kenya and Uganda in the eastern part of Africa. [Read More]

Investigating the Mysterious Snow on Saturn's Moon

by Amelia Pearson, age 13

The snow on Saturn’s moon, Enceladus, can bury almost any skyscraper on Earth. Scientists would like to find out why.

The snow’s depth on Enceladus shows that its water vapor could have been more active in the past. Geysers on the moon allow for water from a salty ocean under an icy shell to rise to the surface of Enceladus. Some of this water contributes to forming one of Saturn’s rings. According to the researchers, the rest of this water seems to land back on the ground in the form of snow. Scientists believe that if they could fully understand the snow's properties, it could help uncover Enceladus’ history.

For scientists to fully understand the properties of the snow on Enceladus, they looked into Iceland. In Iceland, there are marks in the ground made from loose rocks, ice, or snow called pit chains. Scientists discovered they are very similar to features on Enceladus. [Read More]

Search for the Origins of Life Takes Scientists to the Ocean Floor

by Shalmat Shalom, age 14

There is an oil drilling ship that has been drilling near the Earth's mantle for decades in order to discover new information about how our planet has evolved. Scientists and engineers are excited about what they may discover. Many different scientists such as geologists and microbiologists plan to sail this ship in April from Portugal.

The oil drill ship is a machine that can dig deep into the Earth specifically below sea. It has helped scientists discover what is inside the Earth for many years. This machine helped dig a 6,750 foot hole 20 years ago in the Atlantic Ocean.

Scientists discovered a 14,000 foot underwater mountain. The mountain could have evolved by tectonic plates spreading apart. This will push close to the mantle, and “plump deeper layers of ocean crust that have not been reached before.” If they succeed, they could be the first in history. [Read More]

From Moon to Mars: NASA's Ambitious Artemis Mission Set to Propel Human Exploration

by Will DeFour, age 13

Over 50 years ago, Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. Now, half a century later, another explorer will leave Earth's orbit and take another adventure, our first encounter with our closest friend, Mars. NASA plans to use the Artemis mission to return to the moon and reach Mars, some 140 million miles away, for the first time. To get there safely, first, it plans to use the moon to test new life support and spacecraft for the Mars mission.

Artemis II is a mission designed to orbit the moon, and then return. However, nobody is stepping on the moon again until the next mission, Artemis III. Those will be the first woman and first person of color to walk on the moon. Artemis II is going to be the first flight of Orion, the spacecraft designed to get astronauts to Mars. But how does a single spacecraft go that far? The answer is the Gateway.

The Gateway will be a manned station that orbits the moon. It has multiple purposes, such as refueling spacecraft, testing equipment, and researching how zero gravity affects people over long periods. The Habitation and Logistics Outpost also referred to as HALO, not only is a living quarters, but also a laboratory, which enables them to conduct experiments without returning to Earth. [Read More]

The Cosmic Oasis and Jupiter's Largest Moons

by Amelia Pearson, age 13

One of the three largest moons on Jupiter, named Europa, is said to be the most promising place to find alien life in our solar system today.

Recently, there was a mission launched by the European Space Agency called the Juice mission to Jupiter. The Juice mission’s main job is to make observations of Jupiter. The spacecraft's purpose is to also get close-up images of the three largest moons of Jupiter. The three largest moons are Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They are all very icy and it is believed beneath their surfaces, there are oceans.

These moons were not discovered until the 17th century by Galileo. He also discovered a fourth moon on Jupiter named Io. This moon is hot and fiery, covered in mostly volcanoes, which are the most active out of anywhere in the solar system. Galileo discovered these four moons on Jupiter, and he realized that Earth is not the center of the universe. [Read More]

120-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur Fossil Sheds Light on Bird Evolution

by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, 15

Scientists have just discovered a 120-million-year-old fossil that could help us learn more about landbound dinosaurs and their evolution into flying birds.

The Cratonavis Zhui bird was revealed to have a dinosaur-like head and a body similar to that of today's birds.

This bird originated from the northeast region of China. CT scans found its skull to be nearly identical to that of a theropod dinosaur, similar to the Tyrannosaurus Rex. The Chinese Academy of Sciences reports that the Cratonavis skull had not evolved its mobile upper jaw like other birds. [Read More]

Secrets of the Ice: Archaeologists Discover Ancient Arrowhead inside a Melting Glacier

by Camila Cruz, age 15

As glaciers begin to melt, archaeologists in Scandinavia are discovering artifacts that help them learn more about the past. Recently, researchers found a well-preserved 1,500-year-old arrow, in what they believe is an ancient hunting ground.

The archaeologists who discovered the arrow are part of “Secrets Of The Ice”, a group of scientists and glacial archaeologists in Norway who explore and pinpoint glaciers. This arrow is not just any arrow. Not only is it believed to be older than the Vikings that inhabited the land from roughly 800-1100 AD, but it is also extremely well preserved.

The arrow was found between two rocks in Norway in an area where ancient people likely hunted reindeer. The archeologists think that the arrow was lost in the snow when one of the hunters missed a shot. Archaeologists believe the arrow was frozen into a glacier, and when the glacier melted it made its way down to where it was found. The fletching which helps stabilize the arrow while it’s flying is gone, but the arrowhead is still attached to the shaft, which is a unique discovery. [Read More]

The Utahraptor: A Cretaceous Menace with Terrifying Toes

by Aubrey Bevenue, age 12

When it roamed the Earth centuries ago, the Utahraptor reached over seven feet tall. It had many feathers and was a vicious predator found in eastern Utah. It was the bigger version of the Velociraptor.

The Utahraptor weighed about 1,500 pounds. Its jaws were so enormous that they could fit a person's full head and half of the chest with no problem. It had large claws, two hands and feet. One toe had a huge long claw while the other was average in size. This claw curved served as a slicing tool and could grow to be a foot long. In fact, when the Utahraptor hunted prey, it used its claws to rip the animal open and bite it at the same time.

The Utahraptor lived approximately 125 to 120 million years ago during the Cretaceous period. Utahraptors were members of a dinosaur family called Dromaeosauridae. This family also included Velociraptor and Deinonychus. These animals were smaller than the Utahraptor, but their traits were quite similar, such as having a sharp toe. [Read More]

Understanding the Health Impacts and Controversies Surrounding Daylight Saving Time

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

Although daylight saving time is very popular with many people, it may have negative health effects for humans, according to some scientists.

Daylight saving time is when clocks move an hour forward in the spring and return to standard time in the fall. This makes people lose an hour of sleep, causing scientists to question if this is healthy. Kenneth Wright, an expert on sleep and body clocks, says that daylight saving time is the wrong name for this procedure. He says that humans are only changing the way they live concerning the sun, making their bodies out of sync. The action of changing the clocks creates a problem with the human body’s circadian rhythm as it resets.

Wright and other scientists advocate for permanent standard time instead of switching twice a year. The U.S. Senate voted for daylight saving to become permanent in March 2022, but without a vote from the House, it has not become law. Something similar happened in Congress in the 1970s, however, it was not passed as people feared the shift could cause fear or depression among adolescents and others. [Read More]

Rising Tide of Colon Cancer: Younger Patients at Risk and Seeking Answers

by Sandy Flores-Ruiz, age 17

Colon cancer, the second deadliest type of cancer in the United States, has seen a rise in diagnosis in younger patients under 50. While doctors are not exactly sure of the reason for this increase, they might know contributing factors.

Colorectal cancer, also known as colon cancer, is a disease in the digestive system. This cancer usually begins with a growth of tissue called a polyp, which is caused due to abnormal production of cells. Removing this tissue in the early stages could prevent cancer, but many of the symptoms may not appear at first. Some of those symptoms could include changes in bowel movements, bleeding, abdominal pain, fatigue, and weight loss.

According to the National Cancer Institute, in 2020, over 147,950 people were diagnosed with colon cancer, and an estimated 53,200 people died–which is still just 8.8% of all cancer-related deaths. In 2019, 20% of the newly diagnosed patients were under the age of fifty. In comparison, only 11% under the age of fifty were diagnosed in 1995. [Read More]

The Mighty Sun, Stellar Powerhouse Illuminating the Solar System and Nurturing Life on Earth

by Daileni Cruz, age 10

The Sun was born nearly five billion years ago and still has quite a long time to live. The diameter of the sun is about 864,950 miles making the sun 109 times bigger than Earth. It also is 333,000 times heavier than our planet.

The sun has multiple layers that serve different purposes. The Sun's core is the source of its energy and is extremely hot. The surface of the sun is named the photosphere, which produces light and heat for planets. The corona is the largest outer layer and has solar winds that reach Earth. However, these solar winds are blocked because of Earth’s magnetic field.

The surface of the Sun can develop dark spots. Violent and rapid solar flares can cause eruptions near sunspots; these flares release magnetic energy. Another feature of the sun is the red loops around the atmosphere called prominences. These are large clouds of gas that extend outward around the Sun's atmosphere. Geomagnetic storms are caused by solar flares that can damage satellites and radio transmissions. [Read More]

Asteroid to Approach Earth in 2029

by Lah’Nylah Bivens, age 15

In the year 2029 there will be an asteroid named 99942 Apophis that will approach Earth for the first time. However, after years of calculation and observation scientists have stated that it will not make an impact on the planet.

On Friday, April 13, 2029, Apophis will closely pass Earth. This asteroid is record-breaking size for an asteroid passing the Earth. Scientists know that asteroids orbit in elliptical paths around the sun; this has allowed them to observe Apophis since 2004. Astronomers have found approximately 30,000 objects that could possibly pass Earth. Scientists and astronomers have used the Torino Scale since 1995, the torino scale uses a color-coded warning system that measures the degree of danger an asteroid or comet will have when passing Earth in the next 100 years. The scale can range from zero to ten. Apophis is a four on this scale.

Apophis stunned scientists after they found that it had a three percent chance of hitting Earth, which is higher than normal. Scientists are monitoring the asteroid’s every move using radar observations and they were able to confirm that Apophis will pass 19,000 miles above Earth's surface in 2029 but will not strike. [Read More]

Algae Is Vital to Marine Ecosystems

by Dayanis Torres, age 13

Algae is a type of seaweed in lakes and other bodies of water. There are different types of algae like green, brown, gold and red. Most serve the same type of purpose for different locations.

Green algae is the most commonly known algae as there are around 8,000 species. It is a key link of the food chain for aquatic organisms and marine life. It’s located in lakes, ponds, and streams. Green algae also serves a purpose for providing aquatic organisms with oxygen. This comes from a cycle of photosynthesis, where a plant is exposed in sunlight to produce energy.

Brown algae is more rare to find since there are only 1,500 species around the world. Brown algae is mainly used as fertilizer. It is also contained in many Asian snacks, specifically it is most popularly used in the seaweed found in sushi. [Read More]

Unveiling the Dangers of Light Pollution

by Valeria Moreno Lopez, age 16

Human activity has been a continuous danger to the environment and all living things. Right now, mounting research has put the spotlight on light pollution – the unrestrained and unnecessary use of artificial light. This type of pollution affects more than 80% of the world's population, with Singapore taking the lead.

Scientists have reported four main types of light pollution: sky glow, clutter, light trespass, and glare. Sky glow is the excessive brightness of the urban night sky caused by streetlamps, car lights, and factories. Living with high levels of this type of pollution makes it difficult to see stars at night, as it redirects their light and can obstruct the views of stars for astronomers and observers. Clutter is the unnatural grouping of lights, which are normally bright billboards and flashy tourist attractions. Since moonlight leads animals to their migration patterns, this often confuses animals and causes them to stray from their normal patterns. Light trespassing is light that reaches into an undesired space; such as light from a streetlamp seeping into a bedroom window. Lastly, glare is light that can cause discomfort and annoyance while driving, walking, or doing other daily tasks.

Beyond everyday tasks, light pollution is detrimental to human health and behavior. Light trespass, in particular, can disturb sleep and melatonin production, which requires surroundings to be fully dark to work properly. If not, many health issues develop, including fatigue, anxiety, stress, and sleep deprivation. Blue light, found in cell phones, computers, and even in popular LED light bulbs, also exposes people to the same damaging threats. Furthermore, studies reveal lower melatonin production is linked to cancer. As a result of this study, the American Medical Association advocates to control light pollution and discover the additional risks of nocturnal light. [Read More]

Why it's Important to Brush Your Teeth

by Jonah Smith, age 14

Your dentist will always tell you to brush your teeth. But why? Not brushing your teeth can cause tooth decay, an infectious disease caused by sugar-loving microbes that live in the mouth. A new study, however, might want to make you brush your teeth even more. Researchers have found that these tiny mouth microbes can combine to cause more damage than expected.

Damage from dental plaques causes cavities. Plaque coats the teeth in acid which breaks down the tooth’s hard enamel covering. Dental plaques are a type of biofilm and many types of microbes can form biofilms in the mouth. Young children who have severe tooth decay have a specific type of biofilm: the bacterium Streptococcus mutants and the fungus Candida Albicans. This fungus is a type of yeast that can cause infection in the human body.

To gather some more information, researchers collected 44 saliva and dental plaque samples from young children. Fourteen had healthy teeth and thirty had severe tooth decay. The scientists studied these samples to see what kind of germs lived in their mouths. The children with healthy teeth had bacteria, but no yeast, and children with tooth decay had both. [Read More]

How Humans Harnessed Fire

by Sedona Afeworki, age 14

Fire, a chemical reaction, is the burning of a combustible substance with oxygen, fuel, and heat. The reaction radiates heat and light. There are various uses for fire such as to cook food, to keep warm, and to light a candle. However, how did early humans use fire to their advantage?

The first proof of fire dates to around 440 million years ago, before human existence. Millions of years later, the ancestors of early humans called “hominins” discovered how fire could be used once they moved to the african savannas. However hominins were not the first to discover fire; in reality, no one did. Instead, there were chemical reactions that kept happening in the grasslands, which resulted in many wildfires. Instead of trying to invent it, hominins tried to control fire and some archeologists believe that the hominins learned to do so and maintain flame around 2.5 million years ago. But there was no apparent evidence to prove this theory. While stone tools can still be found by archaeologists many years later, the presence of fire cannot be tracked in early history.

By observing the behavior of animals today, researchers have attempted to explain how hominins first used fire. For example, different types of birds and even chimpanzees in the savanna take advantage of the newly mobilized and visible prey. [Read More]

In a Distant Part of our Solar System, Astronomers Find New Ring Orbiting a Small, Icy World

by Allison Torres, age 14

Billions of miles beyond Neptune, astronomers have found a new ring in space orbiting a small ice world named Quaoar. It was discovered by an international group of researchers with several Brazilian members.

Sixty researchers from different countries used telescopes on Earth and in space to confirm that the ring is orbiting approximately 2,500 miles above the surface of Quaoar.

Quaoar is about 6 billion kilometers from Earth. In other words, if someone were to walk, it would take more than one million years to get there. [Read More]

Scientists "Rediscover" the Jambato Harlequin Frog in Ecuador

by Shalom Shalmat, age 14

Is it possible for an animal that has been extinct to make a comeback? Across Central and South America there is a group of bejeweled frogs that is doing just that. The group is called the Harlequin frogs, which is a category of 100 different colored frogs.

After several researchers reported in the December Biological conservation that “roughly one third of harlequin frogs presumed to have gone extinct since the 1950s has been rediscovered,” Klye Jaynes, a conservation biologist at Michigan State University believes this is a glimmer of hope. When Jaynes heard about the jambato harlequin frog, he was motivated to begin researching how many harlequin frogs have returned from extinction.

A fungus caused the frog to fully disappear from 1988 to 1989. People searched for this frog for years. Scientists ran extreme research and pastors even offered rewards to their congregations if anyone found one. After being missing for decades, in 2016 a boy discovered a small population of Jambato frogs in a mountain valley in Ecuador. [Read More]

Mars Rover Microphone Captures Sound from the Red Planet

by Sedona Afeworki, age 14

On September 27, 2021, a NASA rover detected a rumbling sound and forceful winds on Mars, later discovering that it was a dust devil.

A dust devil is a small vortex that swirls dust, debris and sand to great heights. The whirlwind on Mars was around 400 feet tall and about 80 feet wide, going fast at 16 feet per second. Its rumbling gusts went 25 miles per hour for around 10 seconds.

The sound of the dust devil on Mars is quite similar to how it sounds on Earth. However, the sounds are more quiet due to Mars’ thin atmosphere, which also makes the winds sound weaker. Last year, a dust devil went right over the range rover Perseverance currently on Mars. Scientist German Martinez, a co-author at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston stated, “it was fully caught red-handed by Persy.” [Read More]

How Seismic Waves are Studied to Peer Inside the Earth

by Alejandro Berrueta, age 11

Scientists continue to get more advanced as their knowledge of seismology increases. These advancements are helping citizens all around the world to take shelter before any disaster strikes, regardless if it is natural or manmade.

As we know, movements on Earth are caused by platonic plates moving under the ground. These extremely fast movements can cause earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, which can be deadly. Humans can also cause movements on the planet by the use of explosions. For example, testing atomic bombs, and other heavy explosions as well as mining can also cause earthquakes.

With more advanced technology becoming available, scientists will continue to study movements in or on Earth. With the correct measurements, big impacts can be avoided and save lives. [Read More]

Scientists Discover Fish are Self-Aware

by Jonah Smith, age 14

Humans can recognize their faces in mirrors and photos almost automatically. Ongoing research at Metropolitan University in Japan suggests that fish have the same ability. Being able to recognize your reflection or being self-aware, is an ability usually tied to intelligent animals, such as chimpanzees or humans. Finding this ability in fish suggests that self-awareness might be more common than scientists previously thought.

Previous research at Metropolitan University demonstrated that Bluestreak Cleaner Wrasses can pass a self awareness test using a mirror. To conduct the test, scientists expose an animal to a mirror for a long period of time. Once the animal gets acquainted with its reflection, scientists add a mark somewhere on its body. If the subject were to be self-aware, it would start to touch that spot on its body in hopes of getting rid of that mark. Before this research, only large-brained animals such as apes, dolphins, elephants, and magpies have passed the test.

Failing the mirror test should not be indicative of lack of self awareness. Other animals thought to have large brains, such as monkeys and ravens have not passed. Scientists also wonder if this is an appropriate test for animals who rely on other senses, or ones who don’t care about how they look. As a result of this, it makes it more surprising that a fish can recognize itself. [Read More]

The Science Behind Spring's Most Popular Weed

by Malak Al Quraishi, age 12

When you're picking weeds, you may wonder how dandelions spread so easily across the grass. You might ask yourself, why are dandelions so effective at spreading their seeds widely?

Jena Shields, a biophysicist at Cornell University, had the same question when her advisor saw his child playing with dandelions. She noticed that not all dandelion seeds fly off into the wind at the same time. She then was inspired to research why that was happening.

Her research consisted of gluing dandelion seeds to a fine wire, then plucking them off. She found that dandelion seeds from different parts of the flower are only released in certain directions, depending on where the wind blows. For example, if the wind blows south, then some dandelion seeds will go south. The other seeds hold on tens to hundreds of times more tightly until the wind blows in the direction they are supposed to go in. Unless there is a strong wind, then they will fly in all directions. [Read More]

Bursting into Bloom: The Life Cycle of Flowers

by Abigail Gezae, age 11

There are many steps for a flower to blossom. A key factor to making plants grow is the resource of light. This is what makes flowers bloom and causes leaves on a tree to change.

Regardless of the type of plant, light and water are essential components for a plant to survive. In fact, some plants have adapted to be able to rotate or turn themselves to face the sun. If a plant is in the shade it will most likely die because there is no sun.

In the winter, seeds start germinating. This is the beginning of the life cycle of plants. Plants grow rapidly, with only shallow roots in spring. Summer is when flowers open and are pollinated by insects. For example, bees take pollen from a flower and bring it back to the hive. In the fall, plants die and the wind spreads the seeds, birds are a big help in scattering seeds. These are the ways in which plants or flowers grow according to various seasons. For some of plants, these processes happens over one year – these plants are called annuals. An example of an annual plant is the common poppy, which takes one year to germinate, scatter seeds, and then dies. [Read More]

Lumpectomy Advances Breast Cancer Treatment — by Dulce Maria Vazquez, age 14

A new study has found that many women with breast cancer can get rid of the tumors without having their breasts removed. This can be achieved through a lumpectomy, the surgical removal of multiple cancer lumps. This surgery usually lasts about 40 minutes with patients claiming that it is not a painful operation, Patients who dealt with many tumors have been studied using sensitive imaging techniques. [Read More]

Cómo se estudian las ondas sísmicas para observar el interior de la Tierra — por Alejandro Berrueta, 11 años de edad; traducido por Samuel Garduño Martínez

Los científicos siguen siendo más avanzados, tal como su conocimiento de la sismología sigue incrementando. Estos avances están ayudando a los ciudadanos de todo el mundo a tomar refugio antes de un desastre, sin importar si es natural o artificial.  [Read More]

The Closest Black Hole to Earth is just 1,500 light-years Away — by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 13

There are plenty of black holes in outer space. Astronomers have found what they believe is currently the closest black hole to Earth. [Read More]

William Bebee Pushed Barriers in Scuba Diving — by Marie Pietz, age 11

Exploring the sea is something that most of us don’t think about, but it’s important to understand the dangers of it as well as seeing how it can be successfully accomplished. [Read More]

Quetzalcoatlus: The Flying Giant — by Aloniab Gezae, age 8

The Quetzalcoatlus is the biggest flying creature of the late cretaceous period. It is not a dinosaur, it is actually a pterosaur, which was a group of flying reptiles. Its wings were 40 feet wide. [Read More]

Webb Space Telescope Sends New Images to Scientists on Planet Earth — by Lah’Nylah Bivens, age 15

The James Space Webb Telescope launched on December 25th, 2021. It is the newest and most powerful space telescope. It has been sending images and data to scientists on Earth since early summer 2022. [Read More]

Greenland’s Frozen Hinterlands are Melting Faster than Expected — by Theodore B. Morrison, age 15

Climate change has been impacting the planet for ages since humans started producing greenhouse gases. One impact climate change has had is the melting of the glaciers, which scientists have been trying to track for some time. One group has been following a particular ice stream to help keep track of the effects of climate change. [Read More]

Plants: Poultice or Poison? — by Juan Esteban Palma, age 10

It is important for humans to understand that some plants have medicinal properties and have been utilized for centuries to heal wounds or maintain well-being. In ancient times, healing plants were grown in special gardens and used to heal injuries. Today, there are still many plants used for medicine or other needs. [Read More]

2.5-Yard Elephant Tusk Fossil Discovered in Israel — by Desteny Alvarez, age 17

Researchers in Israel recently found a 2.5-yard-long fossil that belonged to a long-extinct straight-tusked elephant. It is believed to be the largest fossil ever found at a prehistoric site in the country. [Read More]

Scientists Say Invasive Species of Crayfish Might Leave Wisconsin on its Own — by Lah’Nylah Bivens, age 15

The rusty crayfish appeared in Wisconsin 50 years ago. Since this crayfish is not native to Wisconsin it is considered an invasive species. The rusty crayfish pushed native crayfish out of their dens and ate the native aquatic plants, causing harm to the lakes. This harmed the local spawning grounds, leaving fish unprotected. Rusty crayfish may have found their way to Wisconsin by traveling in buckets to be used as bait. These crayfish are native to Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and the streams of the Ohio River Basin states. They also can be found in New Mexico, Northeastern states, areas in Ontario, Canada, and states surrounding Wisconsin. [Read More]

Study Reveals COVID-19 Pandemic Prematurely Aged Teen Brains — by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

New MRI brain scans show that teen brains have matured beyond the years of their physical age (as much as three to four years) after the Covid-19 pandemic. This shows the importance of this time for teens’ brain development. [Read More]

Learn More About Okapis — by Aarosh Subedi, age 10

Okapis are mammals that originate and live in the Ituri Rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo in Africa. Scientists say this animal looks like a cross between a deer and a zebra. However, its nickname is the “forest giraffe" and it is a relative of the giraffe. The Latin name of an okapi is Okapia Johnstoni. [Read More]

What's So Special About Earth? — by Ian Kosharek, age 10

Earth is a planet consisting of many essential layers and interesting features. These unique aspects of Earth make it a foundation for life and allow for the survival of species on the planet. [Read More]

Local Observatory Renamed For STEM Pioneer Jocelyn Bell Burnell — by Mariah Justice, age 17

“Astronomy compels the soul to look upward, and leads us from this world to another,” said Greek philosopher Plato. With the renaming event on September 7 for the Bell Burnell Observatory— previously the Oscar Mayer Observatory—Madison has a new facility for cultivating the exploration of astronomy. [Read More]

Who Created These Mysterious Pillars in Ireland? — by Jonah Smith, age 14

Strange pillars reside in County Antrim, Ireland. They have an unusual shape that appears to be man made. These tightly wedged pillars descend in tiers, in a staircase all the way down to the sea. These columns are mostly hexagonal, though the number of sides these structures have may vary. Although their shape implies that they are manufactured, the complete opposite is true. [Read More]

The Mammal that Helped Take Over the Globe — by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 12

Researchers have discovered a prehistoric mammal with a two to five years life cycle that they call the Manbearpig. The mammal’s short lifespan is likely due to their months-long pregnancy, a trait scientists believe helped mammals dominate the world after the extinction of the dinosaurs. [Read More]

The Only Canids Known to Fish — by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 12

For the first time, researchers observed a fox fishing for food. After seeing the red fox, they joined the group of land mammals that also hunt for fish. [Read More]

Should We Add Insects to Our Diet? — by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 14

When we think about consuming bugs, most of us would immediately respond by saying, “ew!” Although bugs may look nasty or creepy, they are a good source of protein. If insects are raised and prepared correctly, the protein they carry can be beneficial for our bodies. Raising them requires less water, less land, and overall less resources than other animals. [Read More]

Would You Want to Live on Neptune? — by Dilma Attidekou, age 8

Neptune, the smallest out of all outer planets, is known for its blue color. Methane is the reason for its color. Neptune has less then four percent of methane within its atmosphere.[Read More]

Native Asian Moth Spotted in Washington State — by Justin Medina Ruiz, age 13

On July 7, 2022, a giant moth with a ten-inch wingspread was discovered in a garage of a home in the state of Washington. Thankfully, the moth species does not pose a public health threat. The Atlas moth originates from the tropical forests of Asia and has not been seen before in the U.S. [Read More]

Scientists Watch as Jupiter Comes Close to Planet Earth — by Allison Torres, age 14

Earlier this year, people were able to get a glimpse of Jupiter's rings and moons with only a telescope or binoculars. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system and in September it passed closer to Earth than it has in 59 years. [Read More]

How Submarines Sparked Arctic Exploration — by Daniel Li, age 14

Built-in 1952, the USS Nautilus was the first submarine ever powered by a nuclear reactor and, coincidentally, also the first to ever reach the North Pole by traveling under ice. William Anderson, the commander of the Nautilus, wrote in his logbook, “Embarked following personage at North Pole: Santa Claus, affiliation: Christmas.” Spending multiple days underwater had not seemed to affect the commander’s sense of humor. [Read More]

First Plant Successfully Sprouts in Lunar Soil — by Daniel Li, age 15

The first seeds to ever sprout in lunar soil poked their heads above moon dirt at the University of Florida in May. Decades of research and experimentation led to this breakthrough which marks the first time terrestrial plants have grown in extra-terrestial soil. It also offers hope that astronauts will one day be able to grow food on the moon. [Read More]

New Fossil Discovery Sheds Light on a Mesozoic Era Species — by Chelsea Zheng, age 9<br>

The Ichthyosaur is well known by the name “sea dragon.” In February 2021, a 32 foot long Ichthyosaur fossil from 180 million years ago was found in England—the largest and most complete skeleton of its kind. [Read More]

Will the Tasmanian Tiger Roam the Earth Once More? — by Sandy Flores-Ruíz, age 16

For the past years —scientists have thought about reviving extinct species. Scientists in Australia and the U.S. have recently started a multi-million dollar project to bring back the Tasmanian tiger from extinction. [Read More]

New Super Computer Ranked Most Powerful in World

by Julian Medina Ruiz, age 14

Recently, a new supercomputer named Frontier passed a major milestone. This computer can perform one quintillion (1,000,000,000,000,000,000) calculations per second. Frontier’s storage system is able to hold 33 times more data than currently housed in the entire Library of Congress. This new computer was introduced on May 30, 2022 by the TOP500, a list that ranks the 500 most powerful computers in the world.

To create one Frontier, scientists and researchers combined74 HPE Cray EX supercomputers, which supports next-generation supercomputing performance and scale supercomputer cabinets. Included in this system are 9,400 AMD-powered nodes, each of them containing an optimized processor and four graphics processing units. This computer uses liquid to cool down—instead of fans which often generate too much noise as the computer does calculations. Frontier communicates its information with an HPE Slingshot, an Ethernet fabric connected to all of its cabinets and nodes, making Frontier the fastest computer in the world. It took around three years to build Frontier.

Frontier’s highly developed performance will be critical in finding answers to the world’s challenging problems. A director from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Thomas Zacharia, said, “It is the result of more than a decade of collaborations among the national laboratories, academia and private industry..." [read more]

From Water to Land Back to Water Again: the Evolution of the Qikitania — by Giovanni Tecuatl Lopez, age 17

There are many speculations regarding evolution and how it took place. Many think of evolution as a linear timeline; but this is not always the case and such can be seen in creatures like the Qikitania and Tiktaalik. [Read More]

Primera planta brota con éxito en suelo lunar — por Daniel Li, 15 años

Las primeras semillas que brotaron en suelo lunar asomaron sus cabezas por encima de la tierra lunar en la Universidad de Florida en mayo. Décadas de investigación y experimentación condujeron a este avance que marca la primera vez que las plantas terrestres crecen en suelo extraterrestre. También ofrece la esperanza de que algún día los astronautas puedan cultivar alimentos en la luna. [Read More]

We Bet You Don't Know About this Hyena! — by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, age 14

You might think there is only one type of hyena, but no, there's more! There are two different types of hyenas: brown hyenas and Aardwolf hyenas. These hyenas look like dogs, but they are cat-like carnivores. A carnivore is an animal that only eats meat. Brown hyenas can easily digest skin and bones with their sharp teeth. They scavenge for lions that have previously been killed by other carnivores or hunt for their own prey. [Read More]

How Dinosaur Eggs Reveal Differences in Species — by Camila Cruz, age 15

Modern birds have many similarities to dinosaurs, from their feathers and feet to hollow bones and laying eggs. Recently, paleontologists found another feature dinosaurs shared that is their unique way of hatching, called tucking. [Read More]

Orcas Learn to Hunt in Family Groups — by Tierra Flowers, age 13

On March 21, 2019, researchers in Western Australia were studying orcas, a species also known as killer whales. Suddenly, the scientists witnessed a phenomenon that no one had previously seen. They observed orcas killing the world’s largest animal, a blue whale. [Read More]

Japanese Scientists Discover that Saturn's Rings Will Dissipate — by Avaiana House, age 14

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System. It is known for the colorful rings surrounding it, made up of rock and icy materials. These rings consists of colors such as pink, red, brown or gray. [Read More]

From the Big Bang to Humankind: How Life Emerged — by Julian Medina Ruiz, age 14

About 12 billion years ago, a big explosion, presently known as the “Big Bang,” created the universe. [Read More]

A Star is Born: The Life Cycle of Stars — by Valeria Moreno Lopez, age 16

Every single birth of a star in the sky begins in an immense cloud of gas, dust, and debris. These colorful clouds are called nebulae, cosmic wonders that swirl around space undisturbed for millions of years. [Read More]

Smaller than a T-Rex, the Gorgosaurus was Faster and Hunted in Packs — by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 13

There was a dinosaur named Gorgosaurus that was discovered a few years ago. The Gorgosaurus is a relative of the T-Rex, but were smaller, with a stronger bite and faster speed. [Read More]

What Will Happen to Earth When the Sun Dies? — by Juan Esteban Palma Zuluaga, age 10

Our sun, like other stars, will die. Stars only shine as long as they have a source of energy, and eventually that gives out. [Read More]

Pluto Is Not a Planet – It’s a Dwarf Planet — by Hiba Al-Quraishi, age 14

Pluto is referred to as a “dwarf planet” due to its diminutive size. Pluto is only half the size of North America which is why it’s categorized as a dwarf planet. [Read More]

As Electric Car Sales Increase, Ford and GM Struggle to Catch Tesla — by Giovanni Tecuatl Lopez, age 17

Have you ever wondered if Tesla has competitors in the electric car market? Both Ford and General Motors (GM) have Tesla as target number one; these companies, already in the electric car market, plan to close the gap between them and Tesla. [Read More]

The Canola Flower: Beautiful and Delicious! — by Sol Saray, age 10

Canola is a flower that blooms in late winter to early spring representing Jeju Island in South Korea. It is a type of rapeseed and is part of the mustard family. There is even a festival named after the canola flower. [Read More]

How an Ancient Civilization Thrived and then Collapsed — by Emily Rodriguez, age 13

A mysterious ancient civilization on the island of Malta collapsed within two generations, despite surviving for more than a millennium. [Read More]