How Climate Change and Geography Affect the Poles

by Felix Berkelman, age 14

Although one might think the Arctic and Antarctic seem basically the same climate wise, they are actually noticeably different. Likewise, they are also affected differently by climate change. Both areas have melting ice, however the two poles have it for a different reason.

The main reason for the difference in climate is the positioning of land around the poles. The North Pole consists of an ocean surrounded by land, while the South Pole is the opposite, a land mass surrounded by ocean. Although this detail may seem meaningless, it actually has a drastic effect on the temperature of the poles. [Read More]

Space: Our New Habitat

by Sandy Flores, age 13

Did you know that one day Earth may no longer be habitable?

If this becomes a reality, people will have to learn how to adapt to life in outer space. Scientists are envisioning what is needed to live in space. Humans will have to learn how to do this since Earth will no longer have the capacity to hold them. Most of humanity would die if this happened. The survivors who remain alive will have to learn how to adapt to life in a capsule. [Read More]

The Last Pharaoh of Egypt: Cleopatra

by Jada Matson, age 13

Cleopatra VII ruled as co-regent of Egypt for almost three decades. She was the last in a dynasty of Macedonian rulers founded by Ptolemy, whose family ruled Egypt for 300 years. Cleopatra is best known for being the last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt.

Cleopatra was born in 69 BC to the Pharoah Ptolemy XII and an unknown mother. During her childhood, she was brought up in the palace of Alexandria in Egypt and received a Greek education, as her family was of Greek descent. But she knew quite a few different languages; some of them being, Egyptian, Ethiopian, Hebrew, and Arabic. Cleopatra's family can be traced back to the Macedonian house of the Ptolemies, who took the throne after the death of Alexander the Great. [Read More]

How Gandhi Influenced Martin Luther King Jr.

by Devika Pal, age 13

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2nd, 1869, to Karamchand and Putlibai Gandhi. When Gandhi turned 18 he started studying in England to become a lawyer. After moving back to India in 1891, he was unable to find work, so in 1893, he moved to South Africa. During his time in South Africa, he began to develop the philosophy of non-violence. Gandhi used the act of Satyagraha or peaceful protest.It was there that Gandhi organized his first non-violent movement with the South African Indian community to oppose racist laws, putting his philosophy to use.

When Gandhi moved back to India in 1914, he found that the British had put the Rowlatt Acts in place, policies that allowed Indians who were suspected of sedition to be incarcerated without trial. He boycotted British goods and institutions. Even though he was arrested, after finishing his six-year sentence in jail, he resumed doing his non-violent advocacy work. By doing the Salt March, boycotting, and fasting, he changed the Indian governing system. It was later when he protested the discrimination of the "untouchables" (the lowest group of the Indian caste system) that he gained international media attention. [Read More]

Butterflies and Moths: The Sky's Most Beautiful Creatures

by Zaniya Richardson, age 12

Butterflies and are some of the sky's most beautiful and colorful creatures, and although they might not seem all that special, they are. People are often surprised by the secrets these tiny insects hold.

During their earlier stages, butterflies and moths are caterpillars. Some caterpillars are poisonous, similar to how their older selves can be. Caterpillars build cocoons around themselves and then turn into butterflies and moths inside. This process is called metamorphosis. [Read More]