Mexico went through a lot of complications in order to become a complete nation.
The Aztecs ruled Mexico from the 1300s to the 1500s. Then Spain took over Mexico under Hernan Cortes in 1519. For 300 years, Mexico remained a Spanish colony, but the Aztecs and Mestizos fought constantly for their freedom. On May 5th,1821, Spain signed a treaty granting Mexico's independence.
Between 1846 and 1848, Mexico and the United States were at war over territory. Eventually Mexico sold California, Nevada, Utah, and much of Arizona to the United States for $15 million. By 1872, Mexico became a complete nation. Mexico served in World War II in 1942 for the Allied side.
Many types of people and languages coexist in Mexico. Mexico is the third most populated country in the Western Hemisphere, with a population of more than a hundred million people. Many of these people are a mix of Aztec and European origins, and are called Mestizos. Most of Mexico identifies as Native American. In most parts of Mexico, Spanish is the main language. Other Mexicans speak Native American languages.
Mexico also is known for its exports. Mexico's main export is oil. They also have important food crops, mainly corn, which is used to make tortillas. Other exports include perishable beans, coffee beans, and fruits. They also make and export a lot of chemicals.
Mexico has had many struggles in its long history. But it persevered and is a diverse country with much to offer the world.
[Sources: Scholastic Children's Encyclopedia; The Kingfisher Children's Encyclopedia]