Molecules Reorganize To Make Up Everything In The Universe
by Virginia Quach, age 12
about every known substance in the universe is either a solid, liquid
or gas. These are known as the states of matter.
must have noticed how the ice in your lemonade melts when you’re
lounging in the sun. The flavor is weaker when you take a sip,
because the water diluted the refreshing drink. Substances change
back and forth between states of matter when their temperatures and
pressures hit certain thresholds. After sitting in the hot sun, the
ice goes from solid to liquid. The melting point of a substance is
the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid. The highest
temperature a liquid can reach before it becomes a gas is called the
boiling point. This is why your popsicle melts when you take it out
of the freezer. The freezer is at the popsicle’s freezing point or
lower, but the room is much warmer, causing it to melt.
you noticed that sugar dissolves more easily in hot coffee than in
cold coffee? The movement of molecules in a substance depends on
temperature. Heat energy creates more vibration in molecules causing
them to break apart from the bonds that hold them together. The water
in the heated coffee adds energy tot he sugar molecules, which causes
them to move around in the liquid instead of sinking to the bottom.
have strength and shape because their molecules are tightly packed
together and vibrate in place. Liquids have bonds that are loose,
which allows them to take the shape of any container they are poured
into. Gases don’t have shape or strength. Gases have fast-moving
molecules that move all over the place, constantly breaking and
reforming bonds that hold them together.
a liquid is heated up, its molecules vibrate so much that they
eventually break apart, spread out, and form a gas. This is called
evaporation. For example, whenever you bring water to a boil to make
pasta, the molecules vibrate more rapidly and evaporate, creating
steam. When a gas cools down, its molecules slow down and bound
together. The process by which a gas forms into a liquid is called
liquids, and gases make up the universe. They are a daily reminder
that the universe is made up of billions of tiny molecules in
different, beautiful arrangements.
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